A Review on Total Hip Joint Arthroplasty: Prosthesis Design and Clinical Trials

Elnaz Tamjid, Masoud Rezaei, Yasin Akhtari, Afsaneh Ehsandoost, Behnoush Samavati

Abstract


Advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, reconstruction of dysplastic hip joints or following bone defects caused by accidents or diseases, and avascular necrosis, are the main surgical indications of total hip joint arthroplasty (THA) operations. THA is increasing due to the aging population, while the average age at the first operation and the life span of hip prosthesis is reduced. Such an increasing interest was the motivation of this review article which gives a brief introduction to design and components of THA prosthesis. In the meantime, this study is focused on various fixation methods of THA implants, in addition to the biocompatibility issues of the commercial biomaterial components. Advantages and disadvantages of each component, design, and method are given to facilitate the comparison. Furthermore, the main clinical concerns, including metallosis symptom, pseudotumor formation, local tissue reactions, toxicity, and noise are pointed out. Finally, the most recent clinical trials have been reported, in order to give a general overview on the state of the art. This mini-review is potentially useful for researches in the field of biomedical engineering, total hip joint arthroplasty, and toxicology studies.

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